By Amikam Nachmani
Turkey's involvement within the Gulf battle in 1991 prepared the ground for the country's reputation into the eu Union. This ebook lines that method and appears at Turkey's international coverage within the Nineties, contemplating the repercussions of the autumn of communism. It specializes in Turkey's strategic value that resulted from the waning of the chilly battle and the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the skillful means during which Turkey shunned turning into embroiled within the ethnic upheavals in imperative Asia, the Balkans and the center East, and the improvement of a persevered coverage of nearer integration into the ecu and western worlds.
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Additional resources for Turkey: facing a new millenium: Coping with Intertwined Conflicts (Europe in Change)
Turkey’s air force gained over forty US combat airplanes, Turkey and the Gulf War 27 while its aircraft industry (TAI) has been licensed to construct forty-six F-16s and, moreover, to sell them, in this instance, to Egypt. Turkey is now in second place among all the countries receiving surplus American weaponry. 53 billion dollars. ) Turkey has since received billions of dollars in export contracts, oil deliveries, customs concessions, grants, canceled debts and access to markets, which have more than made up for its initial losses.
The southern zone now covers the southern third of Iraq, reaching the thirty-third parallel, and extends to the outskirts of Baghdad. Turkey cooperates with this monitoring – among other things it further confirms its deterrence vis-à-vis Iraq – but insists that it will be coordinated with Iraq. Ankara is concerned lest the international force might extend help, even unintentionally, to PKK people also active in northern Iraq. 51 The war’s aftermath: Turkey’s gains There are various ways of measuring Turkey’s Gulf War gains.
In some places, the PKK enforced a total ban on the sale of alcohol. Alcohol vendors courted a fine of 50 million Turkish pounds – about 1,000 US dollars. 6 The activities of the PKK were financed by millions of dollars in donations – some extracted under duress from Kurds working in Europe. 7 Some 5,000 trained PKK fighters were active inside Turkey, supported by 150,000 militiamen and 2 million Turkish Kurd sympathizers. Until the early 1990s, the PKK avoided pitched battles with the Turkish army.