The Mask of Socrates: The Image of the Intellectual in by Paul Zanker

By Paul Zanker

This richly illustrated paintings presents a brand new and deeper standpoint at the interplay of visible illustration and classical tradition from the 5th century B.C. to the fourth century A.D. Drawing on various resource fabrics similar to Graeco-Roman literature, historiography, and philosophy, in addition to inventive renderings, Paul Zanker forges the 1st entire background of the visible illustration of Greek and Roman intellectuals. he's taking the reader from the earliest visible pictures of Socrates and Plato to the figures of Christ, the Apostles, and contemporaneous pagan and civic dignitaries. via his interpretations of postures, gestures, facial expressions, and stylistic alterations of specific set items, we come to grasp those nice poets and philosophers via all in their a variety of personasthe prophetic clever guy, the virtuous democratic citizen, or the self-absorbed bon vivant. Zanker's research of the way the iconography of influential thinkers and writers replaced demonstrates the increase and fall of traits and the stream of faculties of proposal and trust, each one successively embodying the main valued features of the interval and tradition.

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Copenhagen, Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek. ― 85 ― again traditional values. But both pose and expression now proclaim for the first time the extraordinary intellectual capacity required for political achievement. The political situation had once again changed soon after the death of Menander. After 287 the city itself was again free, the old democratic constitution reinstated. Yet there was less room for political maneuvering, so long as a Macedonian garrison remained in the Piraeus. The rehabilitation of Demosthenes, sworn enemy of the Macedonians and defender of freedom, was commissioned by his grandson Demochares, himself a leading democratic politician who had been in exile for seventeen years because he refused to collaborate with the oligarchic regime.

Oslo, National Gallery. the mot juste. We are witnessing here a new paradigm for expressing intellectual activity, one that we shall soon encounter again in the portraits of the Stoics. A comparison with the very different expression of Olympiodorus (fig. 50), in the portrait of this contemporary general who drove the Macedonians from the Mouseion in 287, makes clear that, after the generalized citizen faces of the fourth century, we are now dealing with a new mode of expression that conveys specific talents and situations.

This cannot, however, be confirmed by stylistic arguments, since the portrait of Miltiades could date as early as ca. C. ― 65 ― Quite apart from the question of its date, the portrait of Miltiades once more lends support to our interpretation of the statues of the tragedians in the Theatre of Dionysus, as well as that of Socrates in the Pompeion, as paradigms of the good Athenian citizen. In these honorific monuments, the intellectual qualities of the great writers and philosophers of old were of as little concern as the martial valor of the generals.

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