Spiritual Titanism: Indian, Chinese, and Western by Nicholas F. Gier

By Nicholas F. Gier

A comparative philosophical attention of the extremes of humanism, or "Titanism," this ebook reviews tendencies in jap and Western philosophy and examines strategies to them. This paintings in comparative philosophy makes use of the concept that of Titanism to critique yes tendencies in either japanese and Western philosophy. Titanism is an severe kind of humanism within which humans tackle divine attributes and prerogatives. the writer reveals the main particular types of non secular Titanism within the Jaina, Samkhya, and Yoga traditions, the place yogis declare powers and information that during the West are just attributed to God. those philosophies also are greatly dualistic, and liberation includes an entire transcendence of the physique, society, and nature. 5 different types of religious Titanism are pointed out; and, as well as this typology, a heuristic according to Nietzsche’s 3 metamorphoses of camel, lion, and baby is on the market. The booklet determines that solutions to religious Titanism commence not just with the Hindu Goddess faith, but additionally are present in Buddhism, Confucianism, and Daoism, in particular Zen Buddhism and Confucianism.

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Chapter 10 defends Xunzi’s view of the Cosmic Triad against commentators who have incorrectly seen him as anticipating scientific humanism and technology. a, the last chapter demonstrates that the Daoist sage does not identify with the Chinese cosmic giant Panku, but with primordial chaos (hundun), an image completely devoid of anthropocentrism and anthropomorphism. Also discussed are issues such as the alleged reference to personal immortality in the Daodejing, the nature of the Daoist immortals, and the characterization of the sage as “godlike” or “spiritual” (shen).

Confucius’ strong focus on human dignity and right human relationships and on the deemphasis on divine powers establish his humanist credentials. ”1 Confucius also respects the Hebraic principle by refusing to humanize Heaven and rejecting the divinization of human beings. This will be the main topic of chapters 9 and 10. We must be careful in formulating a general definition of humanism that will encompass both Asia and Euro-America. The humanism of the Greeks and the Chinese focuses on this-worldly concerns without giving up the idea of a transcendent realm altogether.

The last three chapters propose that the Confucian concept of ren, which makes human relatedness the essence of human nature, is the best Chinese answer to spiritual Titanism. In contrast to Kr. a, Gautama, and Jesus, who were deified early by their devotees, the elevation of Confucius came much later in the development of Confucianism. Even here, as we demonstrate in Chapter 9 most Confucian philosophers saw him only as a great sage. The Confucian triad of Heaven, Earth, and humans—in which human beings are not deified, gods are not humanized, and nature is not devalued—contrasts sharply with Christian and Indian incarnational theologies that upset the balance of the Chinese cosmic harmony.

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