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Extra resources for Schaum's outline of theory and problems of set theory and related topics
A) I is most stable because it has no formal charge. III is least stable since it has an electron-deficient C. In III, Cl uses an empty 3d orbital to accommodate a fifth pair of electrons. Fluorine could not do this. The order of stability is I(1) > II(2) > III(3) (b) V and VI have the greater number of covalent bonds and are more stable than either VII or VIII. V has no formal charge and is more stable than VI. VIII is less stable than VII, since VIII’s electron deficiency is on O, which is a more electronegative atom than the electron-deficient C of VII.
The reaction is exothermic. (3) ΔS is the change in entropy. Entropy is a measure of randomness. The more the randomness, the greater is S; the greater the order, the smaller is S. For a reaction: ΔS ϭ SP Ϫ SR (4) ΔG ϭ GP Ϫ GR is the change in free energy. At constant temperature: ΔG ϭ ΔH Ϫ TΔS (T ϭ Absolute temperature) For a reaction to be spontaneous, ΔG must be negative. 10 your choice. State whether the following reactions have a positive or negative ΔS, and give a reason for (a) H2 ϩ H2CϭCH2 H3CCH3 (b) (c) CH3COO−(aq) ϩ H3Oϩ(aq) CH3COOH ϩ H2O 37 CHAPTER 3 Chemical Reactivity and Organic Reactions (a) Negative.
B) Increase in rate. (c) The increase in ΔH‡ tends to decrease the rate but the increase in ΔS‡ tends to increase the rate. The combined effect is unpredictable. (d) The trends here are opposite to those in part (c); the effect is also unpredictable. In many cases, the change in ΔH‡ is more important than the change in ΔS‡ in affecting the rate of reaction. 9 Transition-State Theory and Enthalpy Diagrams When reactants have collided with sufficient enthalpy of activation (ΔH‡) and with the proper orientation, they pass through a hypothetical transition state in which some bonds are breaking while others may be forming.