By of Ghent Henry
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20. The bibliography at the end of this volume attempts to list the more important studies of Henry's philosophy, especially those available in English. Page 5 after the death of Thomas Aquinas, had as one of its aims the defense of human and divine freedom against some more radical forms of Aristotelianism. 22 Wippel argues that the condemnation ultimately stemmed from the introduction into the Christian West of the wealth of non-Christian learning during the preceding century. While some, such as Albert and Aquinas, aimed at an harmonious synthesis of Greek and Arabian philosophy with the Christian faith, others accepted the non-Christian philosophy almost in its entirety, seemingly to the detriment of the faith.
So too, the will cannot command the vegetative powers of the soul. 62 Henry holds that, since freedom of choice is not bound to obey any other power and since all other powers are bound to obey it, freedom of choice belongs to the will alone. He rejects St. Thomas's claim that "the root of freedom, as a cause, is reason or intellect,"63 holding that the will is both the subject of freedom and its first root. Though the will derives its rationality from reason, it does not derive from reason its freedom of choice.
Aristotle, Politics I, c. 5, 1254b4-6. 63. Thomas Aquinas, The Summa of Theology (Summa theologiae) I-II, q. 17, a. 1 ad 3um. 64. Cf. Henrici de Gandavo Quodlibet I, ed. Macken, p. xvii. Page 19 are equally free potencies. There are three arguments to the effect that intellect and will are equally free. The first argument claims that the freedom of a potency lies in its ability to elicit its act first and by itself; that is, a potency is free if its act does not required the previous act of another potency in order to act.