By Joachim Prein, Michael Ehrenfeld, Paul N. Manson, AO Education AO Foundation
Traditionally, each one distinctiveness interested by craniomaxillofacial trauma and orthognathic surgical procedure had its personal parts of curiosity and services. This introductory textbook is assorted in that it offers the mixed and centred services and competence of different specialties at the complete craniofacial skeleton.
The rules defined during this textbook signify the evolution of craniomaxillofacial buttress reconstruction during the last 60 years. as well as regular techniques, strategies representing fresh surgical advances and new advancements are brought as well.
This textbook not just offers an summary on present ideas of craniomaxillofacial trauma care and orthognathic surgical procedure, but additionally is helping to appreciate the complexity of the craniofacial skeleton and its similar tender tissues for an effective and profitable reconstruction of the face following trauma and congenital deformities.
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Extra info for Principles of Internal Fixation of the Craniomaxillofacial Skeleton: Trauma and Othognathic Surgery
Contact areas and gap zones of different widths characterize the morphological situation between the fragment ends. In contact zones, the Haversian remodeling proceeds through the fracture plane. 3-1a–b). 3-1a–b a Functionally stable fixation of a mandibular fracture with excellent repositioning as a precondition for primary bone healing. b Enlarged section of (a): primary bone healing contact area, direct bony bridging showing osteons crossing the fracture area. 3 Biological reaction and healing of bone boring non-loaded areas (gaps) a minimal amount of motion is possible, but it is limited by the elastic deformability of the neighboring contact zones.
The bones of the midface mainly consist of thin compact layers, supported by a more stable bony frame, while the bones of the skull base have a more compact appearance. Bone as a tissue is first formed as a relatively loose material, woven bone, in a process which proceeds relatively fast. 2-1). This latter type of bone, lamellar bone, is formed more slowly, layer by layer, at a speed of about 1 to 2 mm per day. As a result, this bone is more organized and more compact. 2-2). 2-1 Bone tissue first formed as a woven bone scaffold, later reinforced by lamellar bone deposition.
Increasing surface micro-discontinuities on the undersurface of SS internal fixation plates also increases bony integration. Unfortunately increasing SS implant micro-roughness with current industrial methods can reduce corrosion resistance of the implant and has also been observed to initiate a macrophage response to the implant. Developments are underway to increase SS implant micro-roughness without reducing corrosion resistance, which could have major benefits for percutaneous implants by allowing soft-tissue integration and vascularization directly at the implant surface which would close a route for bacterial invasion.