By Jonathan Bendor
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The effects of situational factors will be dealt with in Chapter 9, which is dedicated to the study of mood and motivation. Theories of motives, drive, and affect posit that, even though personality and intelligence are helpful in predicting individual difference outcomes, it is often necessary to interpret behavior at the state rather 1 than trait level. Thus not every expression of behavior should be interpreted as a firs: manifestation of a trait. Some b �aviors are representative of traits while others are not, and personality is a general, not an absolute, disposition to act in specific ways.
1 14 Situations 1,2,3... �1 Situations 1,2,3... 5 Traits and states psychometrically and conceptually represented ITV personality dimensions throughout an individual's life, particularly after the age of 30. 70 over a 6- to 12-y ear period (notably for Neuroticism and Extraversion), and similar correlations have been reported for female samples, though it has also been noted that, in late adulthood, women tend to become more confident, dominant, and independent (Helson & Moane, 1987). just a lot older.
Children will have been born, grown up, married, begun a family of their own. The individual will have aged biologically, with changes in appearances, health, vigor, memory, and sensory abilities. Internationally, wars, depressions, and social movements will have come and gone. Most subjects will have read dozens of books, seen hundreds of movies, watched thousands of hours of television. And y et, most people will not have changed appreciably in any of the personality dispositions measured by these tests.