By Robert Marcus, David Feldman, Jennifer Kelsey
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Additional resources for Osteoporosis, 2nd Edition (2-Volume Set)
VEGF secreted by ECs has been reported to enhance the anabolic effects of vitamin D3 on osteoblasts  and to be necessary for angiogenesis during endochondral bone formation in vivo . Of note, bone sialoprotein, which is upregulated in osteogenic tumors and mediates cell attachment via ␣V␤3 integrins, can promote adhesion of endothelial cells . An important function of osteoblast lineage cells is their response to endocrine factors and the production of paracrine and autocrine factors for the sequelae of events mediating bone turnover.
Particularly important in defining phenotypic differences is an understanding of gene expression and protein localization at the single cell level in relation to the development of bone tissue organization. During the past, high-resolution in situ hybridization methods have been developed for bone sections that effectively support the assessment of mRNA levels in specific cells and with respect to intracellular localization [135 – 139]. The application of immunological detection methods [140 – 142] to sections of intact bone has supported the establishment of linkage between patterns of gene expression observed in culture with those that occur developmentally in tissue.
Cytoplasmic processes on the secreting side of the surface osteoblast extend deep into the osteoid matrix and are in contact with the extended cellular processes of osteocytes. Junctional complexes (gap junctions) are often found between the osteoblasts on the surface as well as between cellular processes. In this manner, surface osteoblasts establish cell – cell communication with neighboring cells in the mineralized matrix. Gap junctions are a structure of six multiple protein units (connexins) that couple with an identical unit in a neighboring cell to form a channel connecting the two cytoplasms.