By Amalya Lumerman Oliver
Networks, collaborations, and studying and knowledge-creation -- The biotechnology throughout the lenses of organizational and networks scholarship -- New organizational kinds for knowledge-creation in biotechnology -- medical entrepreneurship -- technological know-how and discoveries within the context of personal and public knowledge-creation and studying -- the quest for university-industry collaborations: linear and chaotic networking strategies -- belief in collaborations and the social constitution of educational learn -- Organizational studying and strategic alliances: recombination and duality of festival and collaboration -- additional instructions for realizing interorganizational collaborations and studying
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Extra resources for Networks for learning and knowledge creation in biotechnology
In other cases, faculty members have left universities which were incompetent in managing technology transfer. 5 The evidence provided by Liebeskind et al. (1996) indicates that many research collaborations take place on a more or less informal level, either governed by limited, individuallevel contracts between firms and university scientists, or not governed by formal agreements at all. However, this picture is changing. There are now many NBFs, and competition for the services of top university scientists is intensifying.
Hence, NBFs’ critical inputs are imported through personal ties but not through organizational ties. However, these personal ties are being subjected to increasing levels of organizational intervention from both firms and universities. Finally, interorganizational ties at the organizational level within the biotechnology industry play a critical role in the actual development and commercialization of products. These ties, which exist primarily between NBFs and large established firms which own complementary assets, take the form of contractual or ownership ties and are formed entirely in response to organizational interests.
If the large pharmaceutical firms had invested in molecular genetics and rDNA technology earlier, they would not have lost about $3–4 billion in total revenue argue Galambos and Sturchio (1998). 32 Networks for Learning and Knowledge Creation in Biotechnology Central organizational actors in the industry Incumbent large pharmaceutical firms Some might have predicted that the primary organizational actors to emerge in this new industry would have been existing profit-seeking institutions such as large pharmaceutical firms, because of the high level of financing needed to bring such products to the market.