By Frank Halisch, Julius Kuhl
Evaluation of present developments within the psychology of motivation and volition, masking easy study in addition to developmen- tal and utilized features. purpose and volition are consi- dered in chapters on habit dynamics, self-regulation, and keep watch over over purpose and activities.
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33 Note. Lower medians denote higher relative importance. n's are for respondents who provided error-free rankings. 38 N. T. Feather ture love, pleasure, and being intellectual, logical, and self-controlled as higher in importance when compared with the female respondents. The female respondents consistently ranked a world at peace, equality, and being cheerful, forgiving, honest, loving, and polite as higher in importance when compared with the male respondents. All of these differences were statistically significant.
Finally, shame produces withdrawal and retreat. Using the vocabulary of Homey, a person who feels shame tends to go away from others. Note, then, that each of these affects brings with it a program for action. As stated at the beginning of this paper, affects summarize the past, providing an overall evaluation for what has occurred, and they also prescribe for the future. Hence, they provide the glue between thinking and acting, and as such, are indispensable components of any theory of motivation, particularly theories of a cognitive persuasion.
Guilt, like pity, should promote "restitution," while shame, like anger in help-giving contexts, should inhibit positive action. More specifically, given an achievement-related context, individuals experiencing guilt for failure, which implies a lack of effort, should try harder in the future. That is, guilt reactions facilitate performance. On the other hand, the experience of shame and humiliation, which implies lack of ability as the cause of the failure, should result in withdrawal from the task and therefore act as a motivational inhibitor.