By E. Drioli (auth.), Ana Caetano, Maria Norberta De Pinho, Enrico Drioli, Herbert Muntau (eds.)
This booklet provides the lectures given on the path on complicated Separation know-how for business Waste Minimization: Environmental and Analytical facets (13-15 October, 1992, Ispra, Italy) prepared together by means of the Technical college of Lisbon, college of Calabria and the surroundings Institute of the Joint study Centre of the fee of the eu groups at Ispra. This path is built-in in a programme for schooling and coaching in complicated Separation know-how for commercial Waste Minimization supported by means of the neighborhood motion Programme for schooling and coaching for expertise (COMETT II). The lecture fabric relies on case reviews of significance to fabric, tanneries, pulp and paper, steel completing and electroplating, nutrients, and different industries. Environmental rules have lead business engineers to look for extra effective, much less power eating and no more waste generating strategies. Membrane-based separation procedures contributed to get better water, uncooked fabrics and effort and to accomplish at the same time toxins keep watch over. alongside this ebook emphasis can be given to this quickly turning out to be sector of approach technology.
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Additional info for Membrane Technology: Applications to Industrial Wastewater Treatment
Multidisciplinary character it can be used in a large number of separation processes. The benefits of membrane technology can be summarised as follows: - low energy utilization as no phase or temperature change is involved; - low maintenance with a minimum of moving parts. The systems are easy to operate and maintain; - modular and compact design makes it easy for scale-up and less space consuming; - constituents in the concentrated stream remain chemically unaltered which facilitate their subsequent utilizations; - membrane properties are variable and can be adjusted; - no additives are required.
To guarantee reliability on the one hand the producers of membranes and modules must be able to produce high quality products and on the other the processes must be carefully developed and engineered case by case. In fact the main problem in many ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis processes is fouling. Solving this problem would reduce system cost and operating costs and would increase membrane life. There is no general solution, however; each time one must optimise the type of membrane, module, pretreatment and process.
167-178. ) in the press. , Muffato, F. (1989). 187-193. R. (1992). 413-421. , Via per Oropa 118, Biella (Ve) Tel. 0151571 943 - Fax 0151572 251 General Considerations Reverse osmosis membrane and ultrafiltration processes are now technically well established and can replace the expensive traditional separation methods. There are still however cultural barriers for the complete industrial acceptance of membranes as a replacement for traditional technologies, although it is now proved that they are also economically convenient.