Mathematics in Western Culture by Morris Kline

By Morris Kline

"[Kline] is unfalteringly transparent in explaining mathematical principles; he's realized yet no longer pedantic; he has historic discernment, a sympathetic social outlook and a pleasant feel of enjoyable and irony.... the wonder and fascination and infrequent excellence of arithmetic emerge from his tale. it's a thrilling, provocative ebook. - clinical American"Still the simplest textbook for the historical past and philosophy of arithmetic for undergraduate liberal arts scholars. in particular strong for the age of the clinical Revulution. - Janet A. Fitzgerald, Molloy university, NYProduct DescriptionThis e-book supplies a remarkably tremendous account of the impacts arithmetic has exerted at the improvement of philosophy, the actual sciences, faith, and the humanities in Western lifestyles.

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In fact, Cicero bragged that his countrymen, thank the gods, were not dreamers, as were the Greeks, but applied their study of mathematics to the useful. Practical-minded Rome, which devoted its energies to administration and conquest, symbolized best perhaps by the stolid if not graceful arches under which victorious troops celebrated their homecomings, produced little that was truly creative and original. In short, Roman culture was derivative; most of the contributions made during the period of Roman supremacy came from the Greeks of Asia Minor, who were under the political domination of Rome.

The Pythagorean theorem Mathematics is more than a method, an art, and a language. It is a body of knowledge with content that serves the physical and social scientist, the philosopher, the logician, and the artist; content that influences the doctrines of statesmen and theologians; content that satisfies the curiosity of the man who surveys the heavens and the man who muses on the sweetness of musical sounds; and content that has undeniably, if sometimes imperceptibly, shaped the course of modern history.

For the numbers from i to 9 the Egyptians used simple strokes thus: 1, 1 1 , 1 1 1 , etc. For 10 they introduced the special symbol 0 , and there were special symbols for 100, 1000, and other large numbers. For intermediate numbers they combined these symbols in a very natural manner. Thus 21 was written 0 D I The Babylonian method of writing quantity deserves more attention. For i they wrote Y ; 2 was represented by Y Y ; 4, by Y y Y ; and so forth up to nine. The symbol -

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