Manual of INTERNAL FIXATION: Techniques Recommended by the by Maurice E. Müller, Martin Allgöwer, Robert Schneider, Hans

By Maurice E. Müller, Martin Allgöwer, Robert Schneider, Hans Willenegger, S.M. Perren

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Extra resources for Manual of INTERNAL FIXATION: Techniques Recommended by the AO-ASIF Group

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8a) as described by Pauwels (1954) and the tension band plating as outlined by Miiller et al. (1963), if performed without lag screw application, result in conditions which vary with time and location. The different mechanical conditions are: 1. A site immediately adjacent to a compression plate may experience a high compressive load (which could eventually exceed the strength of the bone cortex, leading to irreversible deformation such as localized microfractures; Rahn et al. 1971). A minimal dynamic component may be superimposed.

Deformation may also reach the critical level of elongation at rupture (or strain at rupture) and the material may fracture. 1) than in terms of stress. 1. Critical strain levels of repair tissues Elongation at rupture of different tissues Granulation tissue Dense fibrous tissue Cartilage Cancellous bone Lamellar bone 100% 20% 10% 2% 2% The values taken from Yamada and Evans 1970 show that critical elongation (at rupture) of lamellar bone is small. The value of parenchyma has been taken to replace the missing data for granulation tissue.

Elongated) only about 2% of its length, it breaks. , its different mechanical properties along different axes, does not playa major role in internal fixation and will therefore be disregarded here. Bone serves as a framework for soft organs and allows for locomotion. ) To function as a skeleton, the bones must be stiff. As we shall see on p. 50, this stiffness is the main reason why the stability achieved using internal fixation may be jeopardized by minimal bone fracture surface resorption. 2 During normal activity, and much more so during sports activity, bone must resist large forces.

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