Kaplan USMLE Step 1 Lecture Notes: Pathology, Pharmacology

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In the blood, as the monocytes. In the sinusoids of the liver (Kuffer’s cells), spleen, bone marrow and else where.  In the lymphoid tissues and lymph nodes as the reticular cells.  In the lung alveoli as the alveolar phagocytes.  In the brain and spinal cord, as the microglia.    Function The Macrophages Phagocytose and digest particulate organic materials, foreign bodies or invading microorganisms and thereby eliminate them from the body to avoid any injurious effects.  Sometimes a number of macrophages form a barricade around a large foreign material and often coalesce with one another to form mononucleated masses known as the foreign body Giant cells (Fig.

They branch and join together to form a network within a tissue. These fibers are much fewer than the collagen fibers. They are elastic and stretchable, with perfect recoiling. The thin elastin fibers branch and rejoin freely.  Elastic fibers are formed by fibroblasts.  But in the walls of arteries they are formed by smooth muscle cells.  Though elastic fibers are stretchable and elastic, their elasticity diminishes with age.  The elastic fibers are composed of protein subunits the tropoelastin which possess high content of amino acid valine.

Each cell is spherical or polygonal, consists of peripheral rim of cytoplasm with an eccentric nucleus and contains a large central lobule of fat. Connective Tissue Fig. 9: Fat cell  When stained with H and E, the cell is ‘signet ring’ in appearance because the fat is dissolved by the solvent used.  By special method, fat may be fixed and stained with Sudan III, Sudan black, Scharlach R. CONNECTIVE TISSUE–II Connective tissue–II is considered under the following headings: Connective tissue matrix  Fibers –– Collagen fibers –– Elastic fibers –– Reticular fibers  Ground substance  Types of mature connective tissue  Applied anatomy of connective tissue.

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