Investments to improve the energy efficiency of existing by Eric Martinot

By Eric Martinot

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Even if households are not owners, they retain strong rights to occupancy and housing services. Households are interested in receiving high quality utility and housing services at low cost. Households are interested in low utility bills, indoor apartment comfort, responsive housing maintenance companies, and uninterrupted supplies of utilities. Households may pay for their services directly to the municipal government, to utility companies, or to private or municipal service providers through a homeowner association (if one exists).

Page 8 no more than five stories high. Later, in the 1970s and 1980s, more 9-story and 16-story buildings were constructed, often in residential neighborhoods on the very outskirts of cities or in open country completely outside of cities. This pattern of development has led to larger population densities farther away from city centers than in the centers themselves, an opposite pattern from urban development in many Western countries. By 1990 the size of the Soviet housing stock had reached an average of roughly 17 square meters (m2) of floor area per capita, about half of per-capita levels found in Japan and Germany and one-third of per-capita levels found in the United States and Denmark.

Water leakages in pipes waste both heat and water. Circulating water is often not chemically treated, leading to a major problem of accelerated internal pipe corrosion; heating pipes designed to last 20 to 30 years may fail after only 5 to 10 years. " This means that the domestic tap water comes directly from the district-heating network, so large amounts of make-up water (often untreated) must be 10 Because virtually 100 percent of Estonia's electricity comes from oil-shale-fired power plants concentrated in one region, cogeneration is much less common there.

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