Introduction to Therapeutic Counseling. by Jeffrey A. Kottler

By Jeffrey A. Kottler

This article offers scholars with an summary of the counseling career, together with info on what counseling is, the heritage of counseling, theoretical orientations, counseling functions concerns. The text's specific student-oriented concentration engages scholars in exploring their reasons for eager to be a counselor. To is helping scholars know about the realities of the sector, Kottler comprises "Voices from the sector" sections, which include interviews with training counselors discussing the demanding situations they have confronted and the methods they resolved these demanding situations. Experiential and reflective routines, built-in into each bankruptcy, support the scholar think about the fabric.

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4 (Summer 2000):84–94; Robert D. Arnott and Robert H. ” Journal of Portfolio Management, vol. 19, no. 3 (Spring 1993):15–26. org Tax management can also add a lot of value relative to a simple buy-and-hold strategy but is often overlooked. Taxes matter greatly, especially over long time horizons. Taxes amount to a heavy transaction cost— whether a 35 percent short-term capital gains rate, a 35 percent corporate rate, or a 15 percent long-term capital gains or qualifying dividend rate. Unfortunately, most managers focus solely on beating the benchmark on a pretax basis, which is an uncertain game to play because consistently generating this sort of alpha is very difficult to do.

For our study, we ran a large number of simulations, and we examined the range of outcomes to determine how a particular strategy performs relative to other strategies. For the base case in our simulations, we assumed an average annual benchmark return of 8 percent with a standard deviation of 15 percent for the equity market, consistent with historical norms. 12 percent a month, which is close to the actual average dividend). We assumed a tax rate of 35 percent; in other words, the assumption was for a corporate entity, not an individual who faces both long- and short-term capital gains tax rates.

Rather than canceling out each other, these effects appear to be additive. Increasing the tax rate led to significantly higher after-tax performance compared with the simple buy-and-hold strategy; the higher the tax rate, the greater the advantage for tax management. Interestingly, the improvement was most pronounced in moving from a low to a medium tax rate, as shown in Figure 5. The benefit of tax management when moving from the 20 percent to the 35 percent tax rate is clearly greater than when moving from the 35 percent to the 50 percent tax rate.

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