Introduction personality, individual differences and by John Maltby; Liz Day; Ann Macaskill

By John Maltby; Liz Day; Ann Macaskill

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From this further study, hypnosis has emerged. Evaluations of personality theory also need to consider the philosophical view of human beings inherent in any theory. Does the theory conceptualise human beings as aggressive and destructive by nature, or as loving and kind? We also need to consider whether there is any evidence for this particular view of human nature. Another consideration is the relative influence of internal and external determinants of behaviour within the theory. Does the unconscious figure in the theory serve as an internal determinant, or is it more concerned with the here and now as external determinants?

Paul Meehl (1920–2003) was a Professor of Psychology at the University of Minnesota in the United States; and like Lee Cronbach, he was concerned with investigating how reliably psychologists could predict behaviour. The joint paper by Cronbach and Meehl is heavily quoted within the psychological literature. The following are the 7 authors’ three essential steps for establishing the validity of a psychological construct: ● Describe the characteristics that make up the con- struct and suggest how they may be related to each other based on some underlying theoretical speculation.

Behaviour, thoughts and feelings refer to the fact that personality is a central component influencing, and being discernible in, a wide range of human experiences and activities. While this is only one of a multitude of definitions, it includes some important elements and is reasonably comprehensive. Personality theorists are still struggling to produce a universally acceptable definition of personality. Part of the problem arises from the concept being so wide, Stop and Think Defining and testing psychological constructs Psychological constructs refer to concepts that are not directly observable but are hypothesised to be influential in determining or explaining behaviour.

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