By Sabah Mounir, Carmen Téllez-Pérez, Maritza Alonzo-Macías, Karim Allaf (auth.), Tamara Allaf, Karim Allaf (eds.)
using immediate managed strain Drop (D.I.C.) in nutrients processing operations is comparatively new compared to different traditional or leading edge applied sciences. as well as latest functions similar to drying, texturing and decontamination, D.I.C. know-how has been proven to be hugely applicable for an ever-growing variety of makes use of and with a variety of uncooked fabrics. a few examples are post-harvesting and drying of vegetables and fruit; cereal steaming; extraction of crucial oils and lively molecules, the place D.I.C. could be mixed with supercritical fluids, ultrasound or microwaves; and the hydrolysis of cellulose and the transesterification of lipids.
This publication provides a whole photograph of present wisdom at the use of D.I.C. in meals processing, upkeep and extraction. It offers a entire compilation, summarizing the basics of D.I.C. know-how, present advancements, new study findings, defense precautions and environmental affects. it's going to additionally give a contribution to widening the scope of D.I.C. know-how during the inclusion of a few much-needed examples of commercial functions. every one bankruptcy of the e-book is complementary to the opposite chapters. all of them are in response to displays of reputed foreign researchers and tackle the most recent growth within the field.
Professor Karim ALLAF heads a examine group engaged on the intensification of eco-processes at l. a. Rochelle collage. he's a physicist and knowledgeable within the thermodynamics of “instantaneity”.
Dr. Tamara ALLAF is the R&D supervisor of ABCAR-DIC method corporation. A chemical engineer, she got her Ph.D. in leading edge extraction processes.
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Additional info for Instant Controlled Pressure Drop (D.I.C.) in Food Processing: From Fundamental to Industrial Applications
CRC Press, Boca Raton. ch5 Haas GJ, Prescott HE, Cante CJ (1974) On rehydration and respiration of dry and partially dried vegetables. J Food Sci 39(4):681–684. x Haddad J, Allaf K (2007) A study of the impact of instantaneous controlled pressure drop on the trypsin inhibitors of soybean. J Food Eng 79(1):353–357. 066 Haddad J, Greiner R, Allaf K (2007) Effect of instantaneous controlled pressure drop on the phytate content of lupin. LWT—Food Sci Technol 40(3):448–453 Iguedjtal T, Louka N, Allaf K (2008) Sorption isotherms of potato slices dried and texturized by controlled sudden decompression.
Allaf and K. 1007/978-1-4614-8669-5_2, © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014 45 46 S. Mounir and K. Allaf 1 Introduction Rice is one of the major cereals in the world economy. Paddy rice production stands at more than 730 million tons or 487 million tons of milled rice (FAO 2012). The moisture content of paddy rice at harvest can be as high as 28–35 % dry basis (db), especially when harvested during the rainy season. Paddy rice should be dried to typically 12–15 % db moisture content, which is known to be adequate for safe storage, milling, hulling, and whitening, and then stored as milled rice in order to prevent the production of mycotoxins (Hall 1970).
18 S. Mounir et al. Firstly it is worth underlining that vapor pressure only depends on temperature. However, in similar cases, it is assumed that evaporation necessarily implies an amount of heat capable of transforming the liquid phase into vapor: ! ! À Á ∂T ∂ ψ þ ∇ Áφ þ ρs cps þ ρw cpw ð pw M w L w Þ ¼ 0 ∂t ∂t RT As the internal transfer is carried out by a conduction-type process: i ! À Á ∂T ∂ h ψ þ ð pw M w L w Þ ¼ 0 ∇ Á Àλeff ∇T þ ρs cps þ ρw cpw ∂t ∂t RT (25) (26) where φ is heat flow within the porous material (W mÀ2); ρs the apparent density of dry material (kg mÀ3); cps the specific heat of dry material at a constant pressure (J kgÀ1 KÀ1); ρw the apparent density of water in the material (kg mÀ3); cpw the specific heat of water at a constant pressure (J kgÀ1 KÀ1); T the temperature (K); t the time (s); ψ the porosity ratio; R the ideal gas constant (J molÀ1 KÀ1); pw the vapor pressure of water in the porous material (Pa); Mw the molar mass of water (kg molÀ1); Lw the latent heat of water vaporization (J kgÀ1); λeff the effective conductivity of the wet porous material (J mÀ1 KÀ1).