Innovative Vaulting in the Architecture of the Roman Empire: by Lynne C. Lancaster

By Lynne C. Lancaster

This booklet stories six vaulting recommendations hired in structure open air of Rome and asks why they have been invented the place they have been and the way they have been disseminated. lots of the recommendations contain terracotta parts in quite a few types, similar to general flat bricks, hole voussoirs, vaulting tubes, and armchair voussoirs. each is traced geographically through GIS mapping, the result of that are analysed relating to chronology, geography, and historic context. the most typical development kind during which the concepts look is the tub, demonstrating its value as a catalyst for technological innovation. This booklet additionally explores alternate networks, the pottery undefined, and armed forces pursuits in terms of development building, revealing how architectural innovation was once prompted by means of vast ranging cultural elements, a lot of which stemmed from neighborhood affects instead of imperial intervention. extra assets together with broad searchable databases with bibliographical facts and colour illustrations on hand at www.cambridge.org/vaulting.

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13 All three authors associate it with the fiery nature of the surrounding volcanic zone. 15 They both clearly see it as a material different from the pulvis from the Bay of Naples. Vitruvius makes this clear when he notes that given the thermal springs throughout Etruria one might expect to find the same type of pulvis as in Campania, but that in fact it does not occur there. However, he does imply that the products of both places are a result of a similar fiery formation process when he makes an analogy between the burnt-out earth (exusta terra) in Campania that becomes ash (cinis) and the burnt-out material (excocta materia) in Etruria that becomes carbunculus, which he names as one of the four types of harena fossicia, along with black (nigra), white (cana), and red (rubra).

It is not, in fact, a technical geological term, but rather a term used by modern-day builders and engineers to describe volcanic ash that can be mixed with lime to create hydraulic mortar. In geological terms, the material would be defined as unconsolidated 21 INNOVATIVE VAULTING IN THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE pyroclasts consisting of ash and lapilli of pumice and scoria. Vitruvius, writing around 25 BCE, is the first author to refer in Latin to the volcanic ash from the Bay of Naples as an ingredient in mortar.

Arrows indicate vertical tubes in the crown of the vault, which are positioned between the rectangular centering holes visible on the right. 0 m floor to crown) built over Latrine A in the substructures. 57 I reconstruct his process in Figure 7. Such vertical terracotta tubes are not commonly found in vaults (except when used for drainage 16 INTRODUCTION 7. Temple of Trajan, Pergamum (117–136 CE). Author’s sketch of the process proposed by K. Nohlen (2009) for using the vertical tubes to manipulate the centering during construction.

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