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Additional resources for IEEE STD 242-2001 Recommended Practice for Protection and Coordination of Industrial and Commercial Power Systems
Positive-sequence voltages 22 Copyright © 2001 IEEE. All rights reserved. SHORT-CIRCUIT CALCULATIONS IEEE Std 242-2001 correspond to actual system voltages and currents, whereas negative- and zero-sequence voltages are physically ﬁctitious. Generators are a source of voltage on the power system, and the only sequence to include a voltage source is the positive sequence. Induction generators are ﬁnding their way more commonly into both industrial and utility applications. Induction generators should be treated as induction motors for fault calculations.
Similarly, protection engineers are often concerned about the performance of ground relays or other protective devices that are designed to detect single phase-to-ground-fault conditions. In interpreting the output from a computer program, the analyst should keep in mind that what the program calculates and what the analyst’s protective relay measures may be two different things. Many ground relays are wired to receive the residual current from a set of three-phase current transformers (CTs) and, as such, measure a physical current that can be described in the language of symmetrical components as three times the zero-sequence branch current.
All rights reserved. SHORT-CIRCUIT CALCULATIONS IEEE Std 242-2001 that an inherent phase shift is associated with delta-connected windings is sometimes necessary. Wye-delta and delta-wye transformers built under ANSI standards are designed so that high-voltage quantities always lead the corresponding low-voltage quantities by 30°. The complete positive-sequence model for a delta-wye or wye-delta transformer, therefore, should include a 30° phase shift. Negative-sequence quantities, however, are shifted in the opposite direction, and so the negative-sequence representation should include a phase shift opposite to the shift considered in positive sequence.