By John E. Hall PhD
The Guyton and corridor body structure assessment, by means of Dr. John E. corridor, is a perfect technique to organize for the USMLE Step I. greater than 1,000 board-style questions, as many as 30% revised for this version, try out your wisdom of the main crucial, need-to-know innovations in body structure. overview the body structure of all significant physique platforms, with emphasis on method interplay, homeostasis, and pathophysiology, and grasp a large number of info in an abbreviated time.
- Focus on all the crucial details you want to comprehend for the body structure section of the USMLE Step I.
- Reinforce your knowing and visualize physiologic ideas with more advantageous colour figures and good- illustrated line diagrams.
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Extra info for Guyton & Hall Physiology Review, 2e
After her lower leg has been in a cast for 8 weeks, she is surprised to find that the left gastrocnemius muscle is significantly smaller in circumference than it was before the fracture. What is the most likely explanation? A) Decrease in the number of individual muscle fibers in the left gastrocnemius B) Decrease in blood flow to the muscle caused by constriction from the cast C) Temporary reduction in actin and myosin protein synthesis D) Increase in glycolytic activity in the affected muscle E) Progressive denervation 54.
Smooth muscle does not express troponin. D) Muscle B is characteristic of a slow twitch muscle (Type 1) composed of predominantly slow twitch muscle fibers. These fibers are smaller in size and are innervated by smaller nerve fibers. They typically have a more extensive blood supply, a greater number of mitochondria, and large amounts of myoglobin, all of which support high levels of oxidative phosphorylation. C) Muscle contraction is triggered by an increase in sarcoplasmic Ca++ concentration.
Choice A: Both actin and myosin are important components of the smooth muscle contractile apparatus much like that of skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle, but these do not play a role in calcium sensitivity. Choice B: ATP is required for smooth muscle contraction. Decreased ATP levels would be expected to decrease the ability of smooth muscle to contract even in the face of high calcium levels. Choice C: The calcium–calmodulin complex binds with MLCK, which leads to phosphorylation of the myosin light chain.