By Josef KotláN (auth.), Robin D. Rogers, Kenneth R. Seddon, Sergei Volkov (eds.)
This ebook comprises the lecture notes for the NATO complicated examine Workshop on th eco-friendly commercial purposes of Ionic beverages held April 12th_16 , 2000 in Heraklion, Crete, Greece. This used to be the 1st overseas assembly dedicated to examine within the region of ionic drinks (salts with melting issues under a hundred 0c), and used to be meant to discover the promise of ionic drinks in addition to to set a study schedule for the sphere. It used to be the 1st foreign assembly devoted to the research and alertness of ionic beverages as solvents, and 41 scientists and engineers from academia, undefined, and govt learn laboratories (as good as six observers and 4 scholar assistants) met to debate the present and destiny prestige of the appliance of ionic drinks to new eco-friendly business applied sciences. It was once instantly transparent that the variety of natural chemists and engineers operating within the box had to be elevated. It used to be additionally transparent that the declining curiosity in extreme temperature molten salts and next raise in low melting ionic liquid solvents had now not but taken carry in jap Europe. individuals from NATO accomplice nations contributed major services in hot temperature molten salts and have been in a position to take again a brand new understanding and curiosity in ionic liquid solvents.
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I1ii i & III:: ~ i '! - Figure 8. ,It S I ~ ~ ! ~ CD IJ ! III Q -! K :; :I ::I: =CI I: C. 1 = 01993 Trend of State expenditures on R&D (Source: aECD - Main Science and Technology Indicators 1998/2); an abrupt slump in expenditures before 1993 is not included. Among the countries listed, only Greece spent less than CR. A similar situation in Portugal is not listed. , difforent figures of Ministry of Finance and ofCRS in Figure 7). ~ 'D IJ ~ c::I 1 1,25 ..... "nd • T_, 1k'IOO" O~t---------I~~~--~--------~I--------~t---------+t--------~I ~ 2tWl OOP ...
21 Another aspect prohibitive to planning longer-term R&D projects in Czech oil refining is a very big capacity surplus, both in diesel fuel production and its purification, and in gasoline production as well. that a major stake of CeR shares (49%) is owned by a foreign consortium. The foreign companies involved will prefer naturally to resort to their proprietary technologies. The ownership stake of the consortium in CeR is sufficient enough for the purpose of influencing the strategic decision-making accordingly.
HOMOGENEOUS CATALYSIS IN IONIC LIQUIDS - GENERAL REMARKS As illustrated in Table 1, there are generally two different ways to use an ionic liquid as a reaction medium for homogeneous catalysed reactions. In the first case, the ionic liquid only acts purely as a solvent. The ionic liquid does not chemically interact with either 32 the catalyst complex or the feedstock/produCt. g. [PF6L [BF4r, or [SbF6 are suitable systems for these applications. n TABLE 1: Different approaches to use ionic liquids as reaction medium for homogeneous catalysts Ionic liquid as solvent and co-catalyst Ionic liquid as solvent • • The ionic liquid dissolves the catalyst without chemical reaction.