By William C. Martel
This e-book explores basic questions on grand approach, because it has developed throughout generations and nations. It presents an outline of the traditional period of grand process and a close dialogue of its philosophical, army, and fiscal foundations within the sleek period. the writer investigates those features throughout the lenses of 4 methods - these of historians, social scientists, practitioners, and armed forces strategists. the most target is to supply modern coverage makers and students with a ancient and analytic framework within which to judge and behavior grand process. by means of offering better analytical readability approximately grand technique and describing its nature and its application for the kingdom, this ebook provides a finished conception at the perform of grand approach so as to articulate the us' prior, current, and destiny goal and place at the international level.
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Extra resources for Grand Strategy in Theory and Practice: The Need for an Effective American Foreign Policy
30 For policy makers, what distinguishes the operational level of strategy from the technical and tactical levels is that the details are subordinated to the wider strategic situation. For the conduct of grand strategy, the role of the operational level is to ensure that activities and events are not “autonomous,” but are tightly “governed . . ” Put differently, this governs the role of the state’s resources in the conduct of strategy. 31 This means that actions are subordinated to broader policies, thus ensuring a close relationship between actions and goals.
In this example, these political conditions include the advent of tighter budgetary restraints as governments make deep cuts in defense spending. A related problem with relying on the technical level in shaping strategy is the “chronic dissonance” that exists between the technical and political spheres. ”19 The Tactical Level In practice, the technical level of strategy has significant, but nonetheless limited, consequences for the state’s grand strategy. One reason is that the next step in formulating grand strategy rises to the tactical level, which focuses on how “lesser” factors influence the ways in which policy makers articulate and implement policies.
When did it emerge as a distinct concept? Who was the first person to coin the term? The origins of the term are obscure, but we do know that in the early phases of World War II, American and British thinkers began to conceive of how to think about strategy in more holistic terms as the war unfolded. These scholars, many of whom were primarily academics, saw a great, unmet need in their respective polities: the need for a grand strategy that looked forward to the peace after military victory, that considered that the best way to conduct war was to create a peace that would endure, unlike the failed peace of World War I, which in their minds led directly to the causes of the World War II.