By Seyed Behrooz Mostofi
Citizens and junior medical professionals on rotation are below consistent strain to have actual and updated details on hand to them. this is often by no means extra vital than whilst on rotation within the Emergency Room. Junior medical professionals usually lack event in orthopaedics making the popularity and actual id of fractures and their therapy a difficult task.
This accomplished guide incorporates a wealth of illustrations and explanatory textual content, that's geared up right into a concise repository of knowledge on fractures based on the main accepted type structures. The class structures coated comprise AO and OTA platforms. this permits readers the chance to make an accurate analysis utilizing the proper standards, whereas simplifying the making plans of additional administration and making sure that communique with skilled employees is better.
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Additional info for Fracture Classifications in Clinical Practice
7. Garden classiﬁcation of femoral neck fractures. (From Garden RS. Low angle fracture of the femoral neck. 8) Type I: A single fracture along the intertrochanteric line, stable and easily reducible. Type II: Major fracture line along the intertrochanteric line with comminution in the coronal plane. Type III: Fracture at the level of the lesser trochanter with variable comminution and extension into the subtrochanteric region (reverse obliquity). Type IV: Fracture extending into the proximal femoral shaft in at least two planes.
Type III: Type II injury or I associated with fracture of the femoral neck. Type IV: Type I, II, or III associated with fracture of the acetabular rim. 5. Pipkin classiﬁcation of femoral head fractures. (From Hansen S, Swiontkowski M. Orthopedic trauma protocols. 6. Pauwels classiﬁcation of femoral neck fractures. 3. 7) Based on degree of valgus displacement. Stage I: Incomplete/impacted. Stage II: Complete nondisplaced on anteroposterior and lateral views. Stage III: Complete with partial displacement; trabecular pattern of the femoral head does not line up with that of the acetabulum.
15. Saunders classiﬁcation. 16) The position of the tibia relative to the femur deﬁnes the direction of dislocation. Anterior: Forceful knee hyperextension beyond -30 degrees; most common. Associated with posterior (and possibly anterior) cruciate ligament tear, with increasing incidence of popliteal artery disruption with increasing degree of hyperextension. Posterior: Posteriorly directed force against proximal tibia of ﬂexed knee; “dashboard” injury. Accompanied by anterior and posterior ligament disruption and popliteal artery compromise with increasing proximal tibia displacement.