Energy: Money, Materials and Engineering

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Sample text

Recent tests have indicated that toxic substances may not be leached from spent shale in hazardous amounts. E. SYMPOSIUM SERIES NO. 78 ing the underlying soil and ground water. Runoff can also be controlled, by a system of diversion channels and dams, and will be collected for reuse. This step is necessitated not only by environmental considerations, but by the scarcity of water near major shale deposits. Finally, the spent shale piles will be revegetated, and tests are underway to determine the best ways to accomplish this.

Engineering and construction of this plant was performed by the Lurgl company, Frankfurt. Figure 8 shows a flow sheet and figure 9 a view of this plant. Similar to the HTW process the dried brown coal is pressurized in a lock hopper system, differing only in regard of the elevated pressures reaching 55 to 100 bar. The pressurized brown coal can be charged alternatively by means of a feeding screw to the fluidized bed surface or through a free falling pipe to the lower part of the fluidized bed.

Coal conversion comprises numerous technologies the most important of which are power generation, gasification and liquefaction. In particular, coal gasification and liquefaction have been the object of research and development work for the last decade. GASIFICATION OF BROWN COAL The production of gases from lignite for chemical syntheses and for fuels has been well known since the last century. During the 1 I960 s gas from coal was replaced for economical reasons by synthesis gas from oil residues, naphtha or natural gas for chemical purposes and by natural gas for the fuel sector.

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