By Tharwat F. Tadros
Emulsions presents a common creation, the economic position of emulsifiers and addresses diversified difficulties resembling creaming/sedimentation, flocculation, Ostwald ripening, coalescence and section inversion. Thermodynamics, adsorption and interplay forces among emulsion droplets are completely defined. Supplemented by means of many figures and tables, it is helping to symbolize and choose the precise emulsifier for numerous commercial functions.
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Additional info for Emulsions: Formation, Stability, Industrial Applications
11: Schematic representation of polymer layer overlap. Consider two spherical droplets with the same radius and each containing an adsorbed polymer layer with thickness δ. Before overlap, one can deﬁne in each polymer layer a chemical potential for the solvent μiα and a volume fraction for the polymer in the layer φ2α . In the overlap region (volume element dV), the chemical potential of the β solvent is reduced to μi . This results from the increase in polymer segment concentraβ tion in this overlap region which is now φ 2 .
3 Interaction forces between emulsion droplets Generally speaking, there are three main interaction forces (energies) between emulsion droplets, which are discussed in the following. 1 Van der Waals attraction As is well known, atoms or molecules always attract each other at short distances of separation. The attractive forces are of three different types: dipole–dipole interaction (Keesom), dipole-induced dipole interaction (Debye) and London dispersion force. The London dispersion force is the most important, since it occurs for polar and non-polar molecules.
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