By Richard Sorabji
Richard Sorabji offers a ground-breaking research of old Greek perspectives of the sentiments and their impact on next theories and attitudes, Pagan and Christian. whereas the significant concentration of the booklet is the Stoics, Sorabji attracts on an unlimited diversity of texts to offer a wealthy ancient survey of the way Western considering this principal point of human nature constructed.
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Additional resources for Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation (The Gifford Lectures)
4 (13–38). 2 The Emotions As Value Judgements In Chrysippus The Four Generic Emotions As Value Judgements In the century after Aristotle the Stoics selected four emotions as the most generic ones under which all other emotions could be arranged as species. 68 Clearly, the Stoic classiﬁcation differs from that of other schools. We have seen Aristotle, for example, treating fear as a species of distress, not co-ordinate with it. The Stoics make a further exceedingly bold claim. Every emotion involves two distinctive value judgements.
56 Id. On the Gods col. 19–20; 28–30; 34; col. 20; 30–1; col. 6–8; 29; col. 23 Diels. 57 Ibid. col. 29–30; col. 10; col. 6–7; col. 17–19. 58 Ibid. col. 16–19. EMOTION AS COGNITIVE AND ITS THERAPY 27 This is a clear statement that emotions are cognitive. The last treatise brings out that the Epicureans give a role not only to the beliefs occurring within an emotion, but also to the antecedent beliefs which make you liable to emotion if you have not absorbed Epicurus' philosophy. 59 Epicurus' views are to be memorized, especially his views on the unimportance of death, views which are expounded both in Lucretius and in Philodemus' treatise On Death.
105 Chrysippus' arguments for this conclusion are the subject of Teun Tieleman's excellent dissertation, Galen and Chrysippus: Argument and Refutation in the De Placitis 2–3 (diss. Utrecht, 1992), subsequently published as Galen and Chrysippus on the Soul (Leiden, 1996). 4; cf. 18, pp. 158 and 160 de Lacy. 107 The reference to our feeling the location of the movement has so far been in terms of the location being evident (ekphanēs) or clear (enargōs). But in two passages Chrysippus uses a more explicit verb for self-awareness, sunaisthanesthai: Most people seem to me to be brought to this common view, as if they were conscious (sunaisthanomenoi) of emotions (pathē) in the mind happening around their thorax and especially where the heart is arranged.