Consciousness: Theories in Neuroscience and Philosophy of by Andrea Eugenio Cavanna, Andrea Nani

By Andrea Eugenio Cavanna, Andrea Nani

This ebook experiences probably the most vital medical and philosophical theories in regards to the nature of brain and realization. present theories at the mind-body challenge and the neural correlates of cognizance are provided via a chain of biographical sketches of the main influential thinkers around the fields of philosophy of brain, psychology and neuroscience. The ebook is split into elements: the 1st is devoted to philosophers of brain and the second one, to neuroscientists/experimental psychologists. every one half contains twenty brief chapters, with each one bankruptcy being devoted to one writer. a quick advent is given on his or her existence and most crucial works and impacts. the main influential theory/ies built through every one writer are then conscientiously defined and tested with the purpose of scrutinizing the strengths and weaknesses of the several ways to the character of consciousness.

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From this I knew I was a substance whose whole essence or nature is simply to think, and which does not require any place, or depend on any material thing, in order to exist. (Discourse on the Method) René Descartes (Fig. 1) is commonly considered the father of the modern philosophy. Undoubtedly, he was one of the greatest philosophers ever lived, as his view of the natural world in pure mechanical terms heavily influenced the course of the Western thought. Specifically, he contributed to the decline of Aristotelian physics and to the rise of modern science.

13). From 1959, he joined the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), where he taught in the Departments of Philosophy and Psychology until 1986. He subsequently became Distinguished Professor at the City University of New York (CUNY) and in 1988 was appointed State of New Jersey Professor of Philosophy and Cognitive Science at Rutgers University. Along with philosopher Hilary Putnam and linguist Noam Chomsky, Fodor has strongly criticized behaviorism and significantly contributed to the development of cognitive science.

In order to achieve such an account, Fodor endorses the idea that human thinking is a kind of computation, which is characterized by a set of rules or instructions that he calls the language of thought. , atomic representations, which cannot be further subdivided in meaningful elements). Just as sentences of our ordinary language are composed of single words, so complex mental representations are composed of simpler atomic representations. And similarly to the meaning of a sentence, which originates from the combination of the meanings of words and their syntactical relations, the meanings of a mental representation are the function of the relationships between its atomic parts and their meanings.

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