Comprehensive Psychiatry Review by William Weiqi Wang

By William Weiqi Wang

The accreditation technique for psychiatry within the usa is taken into account some of the most tricky between all clinical specialties. even if many board overview books in psychiatry exist, this can be the 1st fact-based source that may be used for either written and oral evaluation. Dr. William Weiqi Wang has built a concise, outline-oriented layout supplemented with case experiences to organize citizens for the oral and written psychiatry forums. every one bankruptcy can stand by myself and is gifted in "bite-size" clusters to facilitate effortless absorption of the cloth. a bit on the finish of the ebook comprises a hundred and fifty board-review-style questions and solutions drawn from prior exams. This publication is a need for any pupil who plans to attain aggressively at the ABPN, PRITE, or even the USMLE for scientific scholars who are looking to pursue a occupation in psychiatry.

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Two topics covered with more details are memory and studies on arousal and wakefulness. Apoptosis vs. necrosis (See Figure 3–1 on page 20) ▶▶ Apoptosis is programmed cell death. It ▷▷ Involves expression of specific genes ▷▷ Has no inflammatory response ▷▷ May be prevented by neurotrophins ▷▷ Is associated with development, and neurodegenerative disease ▶▶ Necrosis is a cell death process due to external damage. It ▷▷ Has no expression of specific genes ▷▷ Has inflammatory response ▷▷ May be enhanced by neurotrophins under certain conditions ▷▷ Follows acute insult or injury Arousal and wakefulness: anatomy ▶▶ Related anatomic regions ▷▷ The ascending reticular activating system ▷▷ The intralaminar nuclei of the thalamus ▷▷ The cortex ▶▶ Pathological effect of lesion ▷▷ Small lesions of the ascending reticular activating system may have significant effects on conscious status ▷▷ Only large, bilateral cortical lesions may cause significant change in alertness ▷▷ Persistent vegetative state – disconnection of the thalamus and the ascending reticular activating system 19 20 Part I.

Two topics covered with more details are memory and studies on arousal and wakefulness. Apoptosis vs. necrosis (See Figure 3–1 on page 20) ▶▶ Apoptosis is programmed cell death. It ▷▷ Involves expression of specific genes ▷▷ Has no inflammatory response ▷▷ May be prevented by neurotrophins ▷▷ Is associated with development, and neurodegenerative disease ▶▶ Necrosis is a cell death process due to external damage. It ▷▷ Has no expression of specific genes ▷▷ Has inflammatory response ▷▷ May be enhanced by neurotrophins under certain conditions ▷▷ Follows acute insult or injury Arousal and wakefulness: anatomy ▶▶ Related anatomic regions ▷▷ The ascending reticular activating system ▷▷ The intralaminar nuclei of the thalamus ▷▷ The cortex ▶▶ Pathological effect of lesion ▷▷ Small lesions of the ascending reticular activating system may have significant effects on conscious status ▷▷ Only large, bilateral cortical lesions may cause significant change in alertness ▷▷ Persistent vegetative state – disconnection of the thalamus and the ascending reticular activating system 19 20 Part I.

Neurophysiology 23 Hippocampus Orbitofrontal cortex Parahippocampal gyrus Figure 3–3 Structures associated with declarative memory are shown in the median cut of the brain with brainstem removed – orbitofrontal cortex, hippocampus, and parahippocampal gyrus. ▷▷ Cortex ▷▷ Cerebellum ▶▶ Mechanism of storage ▷▷ Formation of connections between synapses ▷▷ Quantity of connections is related to the retaining of information ▷▷ Increased time-allowed memorizing and repeated recall of a memory may help establish more connections and hence better memory ▶▶ Smell and emotion ▷▷ Both are connected to the hippocampus ▷▷ Tend to be long term ▶▶ Effects of stress ▷▷ Moderate stress – causes increase in adrenaline, which enhances learning and memory ▷▷ Severe stress inhibits learning and memory ▶▶ Effects of mood ▷▷ Happy mood enhances memory ▶▶ Prelinguistic memory ▷▷ Before the age of 3–5 years, when the language learning is initiated ▷▷ Only memories associated with strong emotion (traumatic) or with smell are likely to be remembered Memory: nondeclarative memory (See Figure 3–4 on page 24) ▶▶ Also known as implicit memory ▶▶ Skills, habits, and nonassociative learning ▶▶ Does not require conscious awareness and concentration ▶▶ Usually remains intact after brain injury ▶▶ Structures involved ▷▷ Basal ganglia ▷▷ Limbic system ▷▷ Perceptual cortex 24 Part I.

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