CompTIA Network+ Exam Guide by Wei Zhang, Ilya Shmulevich

By Wei Zhang, Ilya Shmulevich

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The NIC’s OSI Data Link layer (Layer 2) adds around each packet a frame that contains the MAC addresses for Tiffany’s and Janelle’s systems (Figure 2-50). As the NIC assembles each frame, it checks the network cabling to see if the cable is busy. If not, it sends the frame down the wire, finally using the Physical layer (Layer 1). Figure 2-48 Chopping the Word document CompTIA Network+ All-in-One Exam Guide 44 Figure 2-49 Creating and addressing packets Now it’s time to reverse the process as the frames arrive at Tiffany’s system.

Never fear—I’ll show you. Visualize the network protocol software as a layer between the system’s software and the NIC. When the IP network protocol gets hold of data coming from your system’s software, it places its own frame around that data. We call this inner frame an IP packet, so it won’t be confused with the frame that the NIC will add later. Instead of adding MAC addresses to its packet, the network protocol adds sending and receiving IP addresses. Figure 2-30 shows a typical IP packet; notice the similarity to the frames you saw earlier.

The Network layer is the last layer that deals directly with hardware. All the other layers of the OSI seven-layer model work strictly within software. Figure 2-35 Router in action Chapter 2: Building a Network with the OSI Model 35 Assembly and Disassembly—Layer 4, the Transport Layer Because most chunks of data are much larger than a single frame, they must be chopped up before they can be sent across a network. When a serving computer receives a request for some data, it must be able to chop the requested data into chunks that will fit into a packet (and eventually into the NIC’s frame), organize the packets for the benefit of the receiving system, and hand them to the NIC for sending.

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