By benjamin; okamoto, Hideaki; lodge, Goerge C. Roberts
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Additional resources for Collective Bargaining and Employee Participation in Western Europe, North America and Japan
There is now considerable evidence that in many industries newer plant and equipment developed mainly within the OECD economies tends to be cleaner than existing plant and equipment (see Chapters 5, 6, and 7 in this book; Repellin-Hill 1999; Arora and Cason 1995; Christensen et al. 1995; Greiner 1984; Wheeler and Martin 1992). One industry speciWc example makes this clear. As Wheeler and Martin (1992) demonstrate, the 1970 Clean Air Act in the US led pulp and paper making Wrms to shift production processes from a chemical to a thermo-mechanical process.
1998), and Yeung (1998) among others describes the dominant pathways to technological and industrial upgrading pursued by Wrms in late-industrializing economies, including the East Asian NIEs. In some cases, technological upgrading drew heavily upon downstream linkages and technological spillover eVects accompanying foreign direct investment (Poon and Thompson 1998; Thompson 2002; UNCTAD 2001). In other cases, the prime pathway for technological learning came through participation in global supply chains (Fan and Scott 2003; GereY 1995; Humphrey and Schmitz 2002).
Governments can assist Wrms by maintaining political and macroeconomic stability, creating an institutional framework—including bureaucratic capabilities in government and an incentive system designed and implemented by capable and autonomous government agents—that encourages Wrms to engage in this diYcult, risky, and costly process. ). ). Stated another way, institutions matter to the success of technological capability building by industrial Wrms in developing economies. In order to represent this point, we begin this section with a series of bi-variate scattergrams showing the simple correlation (or lack thereof) between a constructed measure of country industrial competitiveness and macroeconomic and political conditions.