Beginning Chemistry by Cullen K.E. (ed.)

By Cullen K.E. (ed.)

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Thus, HCO3− was called the bicarbonate ion instead of the more modern name, hydrogen carbonate ion. Hydrates Some stable ionic compounds are capable of bonding to a certain number of molecules of water per formula unit. Thus, copper(II) sulfate forms the stable CuSO4⋅5H2O, with five molecules of water per CuSO4 unit. This type of compound is called a hydrate. The name of the compound is the name of the anhydrous (without water) compound with a designation for the number of water molecules appended.

Note! Electronegativity values increase to the right and upward in the periodic table. Most binary compounds (made of two elements) of metals with nonmetals are essentially ionic. All compounds involving only nonmetals are essentially covalent except for compounds containing the NH4+ ion. Practically all tertiary compounds (made of three elements) contain covalent bonds. If one or more of the elements is a metal, there is likely to be ionic as well as covalent bonding in the compound. When some molecules containing only covalent bonds are dissolved in water, the molecules react with the water to produce ions in solution.

The element with the lower electronegativity is usually named first. 1. 39 Copyright 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click Here for Terms of Use. 1 Prefixes for nonmetal-nonmetal compounds Important Memorize the first six prefixes. The systematic names presented for binary nonmetal-nonmetal compounds are not used for hydrogen compounds of group III, IV, and V elements or for water. These compounds have common names which are used instead. Water (H2O) and ammonia (NH3) are the most important compounds in this class.

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