By Thomas Neville Bonner
Written by way of eminent schooling pupil Thomas Neville Bonner, turning into a doctor is a groundbreaking, complete historical past of Western scientific schooling. the one paintings of its sort, it covers the us, nice Britain, France, and Germany. Comparative in concentration, the narrative unfolds in the context of social, political, and highbrow changes that happened in Europe and North the United States among the Enlightenment and Nazi Germany. Viewing the past due eighteenth century as a watershed within the improvement of scientific schooling, Bonner starts via describing how prior practices advanced within the 1800s with the creation of medical practices. He then strains the expansion of laboratory instructing within the 19th century and the twentieth-century preoccupation with developing a school regular of clinical schooling. all through, Bonner will pay specific realization to the scholars, chronicling their day-by-day lives and discussing alterations within the clinical tuition inhabitants and a few of the biases-- type, gender, racial, and religious--students and potential scholars confronted.
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Extra resources for Becoming a Physician: Medical Education in Great Britain, France, Germany, and the United States, 1750-1945
The winning contestant wrote that under existing conditions, it was simply not possible to prepare good physicians for the countryside. Country surgeons, as he described them, were raw youngsters, neglected by the lower schools, who could barely read or write. After an indifferent apprenticeship, they found themselves in a surgical school in which as few as two teachers and a prosector struggled with the task of teaching anatomy, physiology, pathology, therapy, and surgery to forty or fifty listless and ignorant students.
A young man in Edinburgh, for example, ridiculed his 1. Jean-Charles Sournia, La medecine revolutionnaire, 1789—1799 (Paris: Editions Payot, 1989), 15-16. 2. Thomas Withers, A Treatise on the Errors and Defects of Medical Education: in which are contained Observations on the Means of correcting 'l"hem (London: C. Hilly, 1794), 31. Withers was physician to the York County Hospital and Public Dispensary. 4 Such complaints were frequent by 1800, revealing the growing tension between the ideal and the real in the classical training of students and professors.
Apothecaries, too, had to study with a licensed master for seven years and then complete a practical course in pharmacy and chemistry. 54 The demand for clinical or practical training among all grades of practitioners rose steadily throughout the century. 56 Other German rulers likewise sought to bring medical and public health matters under the aegis of a benevolent state. Nearly all German states, including the Hapsburg monarchy, made medical practice a subject of intense governmental scrutiny and control.