By Robert B. Ewen
Meant as an higher point undergraduate and/pr graduate point textual content for classes on theories of character, character concept, character, or psychology of character. It offers an advent to the tips of an important character theorist
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Additional resources for An Introduction to Theories of Personality: 6th Edition
Motivated by the reality principle. Delays the discharge of tension until a suitable object is found in order to avoid errors, dangers, punishment. The locus of all emotions, including anxiety. Uses defense mechanisms. The stronger the ego, the healthier the personality. In a sense, the psychological executive of personality. Superego Develops out of the ego at about age 3–5 years. Results from introjections of parental standards and the resolution of the Oedipus complex. Partly conscious, partly unconscious.
20; Freud, 1915/1963f, pp. ) Neurotic Symptoms. Neurotic symptoms resemble dreams in several ways. A symptom reveals important information about the unconscious, and is expressed in symbols. Like dream symbols, a symptom usually has several meanings. And a symptom represents a compromise between the demands of the id, the regulations of the superego, and the defenses of the ego. However, a neurotic symptom is always caused by sexual impulses. And more powerful defensive measures are necessary, since the waking state is a source of potential danger to the individual.
An inferior teacher may conclude that the students lack ability. Or a politician who spends tax money on personal vacations, engages in sexual harassment, or accepts favors from businesses that his committee regulates may believe that his august position entitles him to bend the rules. Threatening emotions may unconsciously be separated from related thoughts or memories, a defense mechanism known as intellectualization. Some patients in psychotherapy seek 24 SIGMUND FREUD relief by repressing their pain and talking unemotionally about their problems, thereby failing to make progress because they do not feel what they are saying.