An Historical Geography of Europe (Soviet and East European by Norman J. G. Pounds

By Norman J. G. Pounds

The crucial subject of this ebook is the altering spatial development of human actions over the past 2,500 years of Europe's background. Professor kilos argues that 3 elements have made up our minds the destinations of human actions: the surroundings, the attitudes and types of social association of the numerous assorted peoples of Europe and finally, the degrees of know-how. in the large framework of the interrelationships of atmosphere, society and expertise, numerous very important subject matters pursued from the 5th century BC to the early 20th century: payment and agriculture, the expansion of towns, the advance of producing and the position of alternate. Underlying every one of those issues are the discussions of political association and inhabitants. even though the e-book relies partly of Professor Pound's magisterial 3 volumes An historic Geography of Europe (1977, 1980, 1985), it used to be written in particular for college students and readers attracted to a common survey of the topic.

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Beyond the Alps lived Celts. Traditionally one speaks of their social organization as tribal. In fact they formed communities perhaps of several hundreds, with some kind of "king" or leader and a central-place for their tribal territory. The latter appears as a general rule to have been a rounded fort, protected by bank, ditch, and palisade. Like the central-place of the polis, it probably contained the homes of part of the population and accommodation for the whole in time of emergency. Here the chieftain would live alongside the tribal gods, and here the store of grain would have been kept, possibly, as in southern Britain, in deep, lined pits cut in the ground.

It is difficult, if not impossible, to equate material cultures with ethnic and linguistic divisions, but it would be surprising if the Finno-Ugric peoples had yet reached the stage of cultivating the soil or of making weapons and tools of metal. D. There was no census, and one can only infer its size from that of armies, grain trade, tribute, and areas inhabited or cultivated. It is evident that many Greeks considered their country to be overpopulated, and Greek colonies were peopled by those for whom there was no room at home.

Naturally defended sites were less numerous, and settlements had more often to protect themselves by water and marsh. Among them was Biskupin, built upon an island in a small lake in central Poland. A rising water level forced its abandonment, and it was buried beneath peat and lake deposits. When excavated it proved to be oval in plan, covering almost five acres and protected by, in addition to the water of the lake, a stout palisade. Within were thirteen rows of wooden houses, straight and parallel to one another; in all, more than a hundred houses and a population of more than five hundred.

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