Advances in Metallic Biomaterials: Tissues, Materials and by Mitsuo Niinomi, Takayuki Narushima, Masaaki Nakai

By Mitsuo Niinomi, Takayuki Narushima, Masaaki Nakai

This ebook stories basic advances within the use of metal biomaterials to reconstruct not easy tissues and blood vessels. It additionally covers the most recent advances in consultant steel biomaterials, similar to stainless steels, Co-Cr alloys, titanium and its alloys, zirconium, tantalum and niobium established alloys. moreover, the newest findings on corrosion, cytotoxic and allergic difficulties as a result of metal biomaterials are brought. The ebook bargains a precious reference resource for researchers, graduate scholars and clinicians operating within the fields of fabrics, surgical procedure, dentistry, and mechanics.

Mitsuo Niinomi, PhD, D.D.Sc., is a Professor on the Institute for fabrics study, Tohoku college, Japan.

Takayuki Narushima, PhD, is a Professor on the division of fabrics Processing, Tohoku collage, Japan.

Masaaki Nakai, PhD, is an affiliate Professor on the Institute for fabrics study, Tohoku collage, Japan.

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Piekarski K, Munro M (1977) Transport mechanism operating between blood supply and osteocytes in long bones. van Bezooijen RL, Roelen BA, Visser A, van der Wee-Pals L, de Wilt E, Karperien M, Hamersma H, Papapoulos SE, ten Dijke P, Löwik CW (2004) Sclerostin is an osteocyte-­ expressed negative regulator of bone formation, but not a classical BMP antagonist. Liu S, Quarles LD (2007) How fibroblast growth factor 23 works. Nakashima T, Hayashi M, Fukunaga T, Kurata K, Oh-Hora M, Feng JQ, Bonewald LF, Kodama T, Wutz A, Wagner EF, Penninger JM, Takayanagi H (2011) Evidence for osteocyte regulation of bone homeostasis through RANKL expression.

Sakai Fig. 3 Hinge joint (knee joint) Fig. 4 Pivot joint (proximal radioulnar joint) collateral ligament, popliteal ligament, and anterior and posterior cruciate ligament. Pivot Joint Pivot joint shows only uniaxial rolling motion, such as proximal radioulnar joint surrounded by the annular ligament (Fig. 4). 2 Joint: Normal Anatomy, Function, and Pathological Condition 35 Fig. 5 Ball-and-socket joint (hip joint) Ball-and-Socket Joint Ball-and-socket joint consists of the hemispherical bony head and the concave bony fossa such as hip joint (femoral head and acetabulum) and shoulder joint (humeral head and glenoid cavity).

The directional secretion and fibrogenesis of collagen matrix and BAp crystallite formation, which has preferential c-axis orientation along the cell direction, are shown in Fig. 21. The degree of BAp orientation deposited by osteoblasts depends on the directional distribution of osteoblasts ­cultured on the oriented collagen substrates (Fig. 22). 6 Summary In this chapter, bone structure was described as hierarchical, and anisotropic tissues were shown to be composed primarily of BAp/collagen.

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