A History of Buddhist Philosophy: Continuity and by David J. Kalupahana

By David J. Kalupahana

The current paintings has, considering the fact that its unique e-book in 1976, provided an unequaled advent to the philosophical rules and old improvement of Buddhism. Now, representing the fruits of Dr. Kalupahana's thirty years of scholarly examine the mirrored image, 'A historical past of Buddhist Philosophy' builds upon and surpasses that previous paintings, supplying a totally reconstructed, distinct research of either early and later Buddhism.

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Even though the contemplatives of the Brahmanical tradi­ tion may have opted for the former, the Buddha clearly sided with an empiricist interpretation of the four stages. This becomes evident from the Buddha’s way of analyzing and evalu­ ating the higher, formless (arupa) stages of contemplation. First is the contemplation of “space” (dkdsa). One cannot contemplate space if all sensory experiences and thoughts are abandoned in the previous stage. However, it is an interesting way of initiating the gradual abandoning of the world of material form (rupa).

Siddhartha’s father, Suddhodana, was the ruler of a small kingdom, called the country of the Sakyans, at the foothills of the Himalayas. It was a city-kingdom with Kapilavastu as its center. Siddhartha’s mother, Maya, is said to have died immediately after his birth. Pajapatl GotamI, Maya’s younger sister, nursed Siddhartha in his childhood. Brought up in com­ LIFE O F T H E B U D D H A 23 fortable surroundings, enjoying privileges not available to the vast majority of children in a caste-ridden social stnJcture> Siddh*rtha was well educated in the traditional academic discinlines> martial arts> and other fields of study appropriate for a prospective ruler.

J. Thomas’ The Life o f Buddha as Legend and History (1927). A second work of rare scholarship is by Bhikkhu Nyanamoli. His The Life o f the Buddha (1972) consists of translations of selec­ tions from the Pali canon and commentaries carefully sorted out and identified by their authors, such as reports by Ananda or Upali, who were the Buddha’s immediate disciples, or explanations by traditional commentators. Working with scanty references to historical events, another way of reconstructing the life of the Buddha is to pay serious attention to the philosophical ideas he expounded and see how far these are reflected in his life and conduct.

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